Rosa Luxemburg, nel centesimo anniversario dell’assassinio

14gennaio 2019 estratto dall’articolo di Michele Nobile http://utopiarossa.blogspot.com/

Rosa Luxemburg morì il 15 gennaio 1919, assassinata poco dopo Karl Liebknecht da elementi dell’esercito tedesco.

Non furono gli unici a cadere in quel gennaio berlinese: la stessa sorte toccò, nei combattimenti e nelle esecuzioni sommarie, a molte decine di operai, dirigenti sindacali rivoluzionari e militanti socialisti che si erano lanciati in rivolta, reazione a una deliberata provocazione del governo che, si badi, era un governo socialdemocratico, un governo della sinistra.

Con Rosa Luxemburg scompariva la mente più lucida della teoria e della pratica rivoluzionaria nell’Europa occidentale nei primi due decenni del XX secolo, l’unica a potersi confrontare ad armi pari con Lenin e Trotsky. A una mente brillante che nel modo migliore argomentò la ragione della rivoluzione socialista corrispondeva una passione inesauribile nel mettere al centro dell’azione dell’avanguardia politica organizzata il movimento sociale dei lavoratori, la dinamica delle loro lotte, la maturazione di una coscienza di classe rivoluzionaria attraverso l’esperienza diretta e l’auto-organizzazione della classe. Lottò perché la politica socialista fosse realmente un tutt’uno con la lotta di classe, intesa come movimento di auto-emancipazione sociale. Sostenne con coerenza ineguagliata la democrazia socialista come fine e come mezzo della lotta politica. Le implicazioni storiche di quelle esecuzioni – e in particolare di Rosa Luxemburg – furono gravissime. Retrospettivamente portarono un colpo mortale alla direzione socialista e alla possibilità di realizzare la rivoluzione nel Paese più avanzato d’Europa. Quattordici anni dopo lo Stato capitalistico tedesco, la cui ricostruzione si ergeva sulla repressione di quel moto berlinese, si sarebbe denominato Terzo Reich. Malgrado la situazione politica in Germania rimanesse tesa ancora per alcuni anni, il colpo portato al movimento operaio tedesco, a sua volta, contribuì alla rapida involuzione autoritaria della rivoluzione russa. Se Rosa Luxemburg fosse sopravvissuta alla controrivoluzione, avrebbe mantenuto nei confronti del bolscevismo russo la linea che aveva definito nei vent’anni passati: di collaborazione nella lotta rivoluzionaria e, insieme, di dura critica delle inclinazioni a sostituire l’organizzazione di massa con la direzione del vertice del partito. E certamente, in lei la dittatura di Stalin avrebbe trovato immediatamente un’avversaria formidabile nel movimento operaio internazionale.

Esistono circostanze in cui la presenza o l’assenza o la scomparsa di singole e individualità può influire, se non sulla direzione complessiva della storia, almeno sui suoi modi e sulla possibilità che torni ad emergere una possibilità temporaneamente neutralizzata. Ebbene, Rosa Luxemburg fu una di queste individualità. A distanza di un secolo dalla sua morte, chi pensa a un cambiamento rivoluzionario del mondo, chi aspira a un futuro dell’umanità avviato verso la liberazione dall’oppressione e dallo sfruttamento attraverso il socialismo e la massima espansione della democrazia, chi spera di salvare l’umanità dai poteri economici e statali che la dominano, deve poter andare oltre Rosa Luxemburg ma non può fare a meno, innanzitutto, di comprenderne e assimilarne le lezioni.

La vita di Rosa Luxemburg fu contraddistinta dall’incessante ricerca dell’accordo tra il fine della rivoluzione per il socialismo con i modi e i mezzi per la sua realizzazione. Fu anche questo il motivo per cui rimase a Berlino invece di rifugiarsi in luogo più sicuro durante una battaglia che non aveva voluto, non in quel momento preciso, ma che era comunque la battaglia in cui il proletariato rivoluzionario s’era impegnato. Accordare fine e mezzi è impresa difficile ma non impossibile. La divaricazione tra il fine e i mezzi, al punto di costruire una dittatura contro i lavoratori o di integrarsi nei giochi politici tra partiti borghesi ha segnato il destino dei partiti comunisti e socialisti del XX secolo. Il cinico realismo circa i mezzi si è rivelato sommamente miope sul piano della grande storia mondiale: i mezzi hanno ammazzato il fine.

Rosa Luxemburg offre una lezione di metodo e alcune indicazioni concrete perché il fine possa ritrovarsi e rinnovarsi in modo adeguato al XXI secolo e alle future generazioni. È un esempio di realismo e di acuta analisi delle situazioni e dei problemi: ma di un realismo che non dimentica mai che la liberazione può essere solo auto-liberazione; che la democrazia socialista significa espandere e non comprimere i diritti politici e che non può esserci socialismo senza la socializzazione sia dell’economia sia della politica. Che socialismo non significa statalismo e men che mai dittatura di un partito unico ma autogestione diretta da parte del popolo, per usare un termine contemporaneo. 

Concludo con una citazione lunga ma che, oltre al suo interesse storico ha grande valore per quel che riguarda il rapporto tra fine e mezzi. È tratta dal lungo articolo La tragedia russa, presumibilmente scritto da Luxemburg tra il settembre e l’ottobre 1918 ma pubblicato solo nel 1921. Esso è coerente con quanto aveva scritto nei decenni precedenti, in particolare in Problemi di organizzazione della socialdemocrazia russa (1903-1904) in cui criticava la logica dittatoriale d’organizzazione del partito proposta da Lenin. Nel testo del 1918 Luxemburg espresse ammirazione per i bolscevichi per aver osato la rivoluzione in Russia e piena solidarietà con l’intento di iniziare la costruzione del socialismo. Nello stesso tempo criticò senza mezzi termini la gestione del potere da parte del bolscevismo: è la critica di una rivoluzionaria ad altri rivoluzionari, che però marca in modo inequivoco la differenza tra democrazia socialista, liberalismo borghese e dittatura burocratica sul proletariato.

 «La libertà solo per i seguaci del governo, solo per i membri di un partito – per numerosi che possano essere – non è libertà. La libertà è sempre unicamente la libertà di chi la pensa diversamente. Non per fanatismo di “giustizia”, ma perché tutto ciò che di educativo, salutare e purificatore deriva dalla libertà politica, dipende da questa condizione, e perde ogni efficacia quando la “libertà” si fa privilegio (…)».

«Ma col soffocamento della vita politica in tutto il Paese anche la vita dei soviet non potrà sfuggire a una paralisi sempre più estesa. Senza elezioni generali, libertà di stampa e di riunione illimitata, libera lotta d’opinione in ogni pubblica istituzione, la vita si spegne, diventa apparente e in essa l’unico elemento attivo rimane la burocrazia. La vita pubblica s’addormenta poco per volta, alcune dozzine di capipartito d’inesauribile energia e animati da un idealismo sconfinato dirigono e governano: tra questi la guida effettiva è poi in mano a una dozzina di teste superiori; e un’élite di operai viene di tempo in tempo convocata per battere le mani ai discorsi dei capi, votare unanimemente risoluzioni prefabbricate; in fondo dunque un predominio di cricche, una dittatura, certo: non la dittatura del proletariato, tuttavia, ma la dittatura di un pugno di politici, vale a dire dittatura nel senso borghese, nel senso del dominio giacobino (…)»

«Noi non siamo mai stati fanatici della democrazia formale, ciò significa soltanto: noi abbiamo sempre distinto il nocciolo sociale dalla forma politica della democrazia borghese, abbiamo sempre svelato l’amaro nocciolo della disuguaglianza e della soggezione sociale sotto la dolce scorza dell’uguaglianza e della libertà formali, non per ributtarle, ma per spronare la classe operaia a non ritenersi soddisfatta della buccia; a conquistarsi piuttosto il potere politico per riempirlo di un nuovo contenuto sociale. È compito storico del proletariato, una volta giunto al potere, creare al posto della democrazia borghese una democrazia socialista, non abolire ogni democrazia. Ma la democrazia socialista non comincia soltanto nella terra promessa, una volta costruite le infrastrutture economiche socialiste, come dono natalizio bell’e fatto per il bravo popolo, che nel frattempo ha fedelmente sostenuto un pugno di dittatori socialisti. La democrazia socialista comincia contemporaneamente alla demolizione del dominio di classe e alla costruzione del socialismo. Essa comincia al momento della conquista del potere da parte del partito socialista. Essa è null’altro che dittatura del proletariato. Certo: dittatura! Ma questa dittatura consiste nel sistema di applicazione della democrazia, non nella sua abolizione. In energici e decisi interventi sui diritti acquisiti e sui rapporti economici della società borghese, senza i quali la trasformazione socialista non è realizzabile. Ma questa dittatura deve essere opera della classe, e non di una piccola minoranza di dirigenti in nome della classe, vale a dire deve uscire passo passo dall’attiva partecipazione delle masse, stare sotto la loro influenza diretta, sottostare al controllo di una completa pubblicità, emergere dalla crescente istruzione politica delle masse popolari».

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