Aldo Zanchetta: “riflettendo sul Venezuela”

“In Venezuela si sono prodotti cambiamenti molto importanti in questi ultimi anni. In mezzo alla marea neoliberista che sconvolge il mondo, quando la parola “socialismo” era uscita di circolazione, il processo politico che il paese caraibico iniziò a vivere fu una fonte di speranza. Buona parte, per non dire la totalità della sinistra mondiale guardò al Venezuela come una luce nella tenebra, una porta che si apriva. Il preconizzato “Socialismo del XXI° secolo” lasciava intravedere che la storia non era conclusa. Oggi, morto ormai il principale artefice di questo processo, Hugo Chávez, il processo bolivariano si trova di fronte ad un crocevia. Non è retrocesso fino al suo rovesciamento, ma neppure è avanzato come processo rivoluzionario trasformatore. Analizzarlo può essere estremamente importante per coloro che continuano a credere che “un altro mondo è possibile”, un altro mondo non retto dalla logica del capitale, del mercato, della guerra…”[1]

15luglio 2017 da Aldo Zanchetta

Non sono un esperto di Venezuela né un analista politico ma solo una persona che da più di 30 anni guarda all’America Latina come luogo di interessanti sperimentazioni politiche volte a costruire alternative al sistema capitalista. Lo sguardo nel tempo si è affinato, liberandosi da vecchi paradigmi, pericolose illusioni e luoghi comuni.

L’ascesa al governo di Chávez in Venezuela mi aveva suscitato speranze. Sono stato fra i primissimi in Italia a scrivere in suo favore mentre nell’arco della sinistra sia partitica che movimentista si arricciava il naso di fronte a questo ennesimo militare sceso in politica, e con in più con precedenti golpisti. Me lo avevano suggerito alcuni pochi scritti su di lui provenienti dal movimento dei Sem Terra, che seguivo con attenzione. Ero stato in Venezuela un paio di volte  precedentemente per ragioni di lavoro ed ero rimasto impressionato, anche per esperienza diretta, della corruzione nelle strutture pubbliche e della  violenza nelle strade, e mi sembrava impossibile che una luce importante venisse da questo paese. Ma i fatti sembravano smentirmi. Due viaggi, questi non più di lavoro ma mirati a una verifica personale, mi riempirono di speranza. Ho avuto (ed ho) una ammirazione e anche affetto per quest’uomo, Chávez, che a mio giudizio ha tentato uno degli esperimenti più seri in America Latina per costruire un paese diverso e più giusto. Questo non mi ha impedito di interrogarmi sull’accentramento del potere nelle mani di una sola persona e ciò grazie al carisma, certo straordinario, che possedeva. Il tempo mi doveva far ricredere sulla giustezza di percorso del suo “progetto bolivariano”. I cambiamenti veri implicano quanto meno, o forse principalmente, un parallelo percorso dal basso verso l’alto e non viceversa, come è accaduto in Venezuela, e anche negli altri paesi “progressisti” di inizio secolo: Brasile, Bolivia, Ecuador… Ma molte cose dello “chavismo”, soprattutto nei primi anni, sono state pregevoli e hanno mobilitato milioni di persone che nei programmi di Chávez avevano creduto e in molti continuano a credere. Oggi i suoi avversari interni e esterni vogliono vanificarle, come già tentarono al suo decollo come Presidente. Non sarà facile che le dimentichino e qualcosa rinascerà.

Dov’è che Chávez ha sbagliato? E’ importante capirlo, come ci ricorda Colussi, per non ripetere gli errori. Anch’io mi interrogo e provo a dare le mie risposte, senza pretendere di avere capito tutto. Ma mi è difficile scriverne tanto da avere iniziato a farlo almeno una decina di volte finendo poi col cestinare quanto scritto ritenendolo inadeguato a esprimere correttamente la complessità della situazione. E nelle note infine scritte, non c’è il dono della brevità.

[1] https://www.aporrea.org/ideologia/a214219.html

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