Nicaragua, tra scontri e proteste

Da giorni il Nicaragua è scosso da una forte crisi che ha provocato almeno 19 morti (il governo parla di 10, alcune ong di 25, altre di 30, ma i numeri, come spesso accade, non sono chiari né confermati da nessuna istituzione, organizzazione umanitaria od organismo multilaterale)

24aprile 2018 di Giorgio Trucchi

La protesta parte inizialmente per un incendio che ha divorato migliaia di ettari della riserva naturale Indio Maíz (risposta tardiva del governo) e si amplia dopo la decisione unilaterale del Governo di riformare articoli del regolamento dell’Istituto Previdenza Sociale (Inss). Le riforme aumentano l’importo dei contributi mensili versati da lavoratori e datori di lavoro, tolgono il 5% ai pensionati (in modo da garantire loro l’accesso completo alla sanità), riducono dall’80% al 70% della media salariale degli ultimi 5 anni il tetto massimo delle pensioni.

Allo stesso tempo, però, non toccano l’età minima pensionabile (60 anni), né la quantità minima di contributi (750 settimane) necessaria per pensionarsi. Garantiscono anche la continuità di alcuni diritti ottenuti con l’entrata del governo sandinista: pensioni per le madri degli eroi e martiri della guerra, tredicesima, rivalutazione delle pensioni in base all’aumento semestrale del salario minimo nazionale, ampliamento dell’accesso alle cure mediche e ai medicinali, pensione ridotta per migliaia di anziani che non hanno raggiunto la quota minima delle 750 settimane.

Le mobilitazioni partono soprattutto dalle università in modo abbastanza spontaneo, anche se è evidente una preparazione previa in quanto all’uso e alla gestione minuziosa, immediata e massiccia delle reti sociali a livello nazionale.
Difficile non vedere elementi, contenuti e dinamiche comuni con altre esplosioni sociali avvenute nel continente (Venezuela per esempio). Evidente anche la presenza di settori della rachitica opposizione politica e sociale, l’impresa privata (con cui Ortega ha stretto una forte alleanza in questi anni) e la gerarchia cattolica, tutti pronti a capitalizzare politicamente la crisi, riconquistando spazi persi in questi 11 anni. La risposta repressiva iniziale del governo, che sembra avere sottovalutato la portata della protesta, ha poi “facilitato le cose”.

Dopo i morti e i feriti, le insurrezioni nelle principali città del paese, i saccheggi e le barricate di Managua, il Governo revoca le riforme e invita l’impresa privata a un nuovo tavolo per ridiscutere il tema, invitando anche la Chiesa Cattolica (ma non i giovani). Ma la cosa sembra essere andata oltre e già non si tratta solo delle pensioni, ma anche di un malessere diffuso provocato da 11 anni di autoritarismo e verticalismo nella gestione del potere (tra le altre cose).

Su Radio Onda d’Urto Giorgio Trucchi ha provato a spiegare la complessità della situazione. Il link per ascoltare l’intervista: http://www.radiondadurto.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Nicaragua-trucchi.mp3 – Ascolta o scarica [Download

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